our research team iconOur Research Team

  • Our research team includes experts with an average of more than 20 years of experience in the fields of consumer issues, healthcare performance measurement, survey research, analysis, and IT solutions. Furthermore, more than 80 percent of our team holds advanced degrees in relevant fields. CSS also offers consistency and stability-our directors have an average tenure of more than 10 years with our organization.


    Robert Krughoff has served as President of CSS since he founded the organization in 1974. He has been responsible for developing and implementing research and performance measurement strategies and consumer-information strategies in a wide range of service fields addressed by CSS and its direct-to-consumer publication Consumers' CHECKBOOK, from health care services to financial services to home maintenance services. Robert has over 40 years of experience in the health care field, having served on a number of committees of the Institute of Medicine, the National Quality Forum, the U.S. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, and other organizations working to improve health care performance measurement, quality, and efficiency. In 2015, Robert was awarded the Inaugural Consumers and Patients for Quality Award from the National Quality Forum.

    Survey Director

    Since 2005, Jeff Burkeen has managed the design, sampling, fielding and reporting of several survey projects for CSS dealing with multiple data collection modes and multiple survey fielding languages. He has designed systems that allow for customer-specific flexibility within a larger construct and that enable comparability across clients. Jeff has built survey systems focusing on ease of use, allowing for automated audit checks on sample frames, and providing sampling flexibility in a web environment.

    Vice President of Healthcare Research

    Paul Kallaur has led CSS's Healthcare Research Group since 1998. Drawing on his extensive research, analysis, and project management experience, he has led the development and implementation of effective, rigorous study designs and survey strategies that take into account question formulation, survey design, fielding protocol, data cleaning rules, data analysis methods, and report usability. He has led the analysis and reporting of study results to provide insight and guidance to those we serve. He has designed and implemented numerous tests to assess the impact of fielding modifications on scores and response rates for CAHPS and other surveys. The results of some of these tests can be seen in recently published articles in Public Opinion Quarterly and Field Methods. Under Kallaur's leadership, CSS has obtained eight official CAHPS certifications and approvals from agencies like the National Committee for Quality Assurance and the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Surveys.

    Survey Director

    Mike Parks has been managing large scale surveys for health plans and other organizations since 2006. He has specialized in assisting these organizations with NCQA, CMS, and various state requirements and helping leverage extensive information from their surveys. His survey administration experience includes all aspects of sampling, survey design, fielding (mail, telephone, fax, and internet), data management, and data analysis. Parks leads our effort(s) on developing custom software tools for reporting results to clients.

    Survey Director

    Julie Amromin has over 15 years of research experience in health care, direct mail, financial services, marketing, and clinical research. Since joining CSS in 2002, Amromin has managed multiple large scale survey projects using various modes of data collection, including mail, email, telephone, and fax; employing various incentive schemes; and implemented sophisticated analysis sophisticated analysis and reporting designs. She leads the development of CSS's proprietary analytical tools, such as Key Driver and strength/opportunity models. In addition, Amromin manages annual provider satisfaction surveys for Aetna, Cigna, and a number of other health plans. She has contributed her expertise in statistical data analysis and report design to a number of Clinician and Group CAHPS survey projects.

    Director of IT Coordination

    Andrew Duff is Director of IT Coordination at CSS. His primary responsibilities include managing strategic IT initiatives and coordinating the organization's technical resources across multiple divisions. Duff joined CSS in 2008 and his responsibilities call for skills in business intelligence, vendor and client management, and complex data manipulation. He manages the building and hosting of consumer facing online decision support tools for public and private health exchanges across the US. He combines technical proficiency, subject matter expertise, and business insight to produce effective results for internal and external facing initiatives.

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